On this occasion, allow me to offer thanks to the presence of God. Almighty for all His mercy and grace that has been delegated on the very day this happy. Through this book I hope to give a donation thoughts about teaching English, especially in elementary school. This Donations mind form of review of the implementation of policy implementation English lesson in elementary school. This review based on the results of some research, and notes field, experience and theory about child development, especially concerning language development. Successive shall I suggested: (1) policies and Home for the afternoon thinking Young Learners (EYL), (2) basic theory courses EYL; (3) reality on the ground, (4) EYL teacher qualifications; (5) the learning device, and (6) teacher training.
TEACHING ENGLISH IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
POLICY, IMPLEMENTATION, AND THE FACT
A. Policy and Rationale EYL
English lessons in primary schools has been carried out during less than 10 years. Policies on allowing the English lessons in primary school was officially justified because it is based on policies related. No. RI Department of Education Policy. 0487/4/1992, Chapter VIII, states that school basis can add lessons in its curriculum, provided that lesson is not contrary to the national education goals. Later, this policy was followed by Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 060/U/1993 dated February 25, 1993 about the possibility of English language courses in the subject content local elementary school, and can be started in 4th grade. Furthermore, national policy followed by SK Head Office of the Ministry of Education and No culture of
This policy has responded positively and widely by the community, namely elementary schools who feel the need for and ability to organize teaching English. In the course of its development, English language lessons originally as local content becomes local content lessons selection compulsory in some areas. Curriculum local content lessons is not organized by Ministry of Education Curriculum Center, but was developed at the provincial level. Therefore, local curriculum in East Java, unlike in Central Java and
From the analysis, curriculum for English as the existing local content when we really look there are still many weaknesses. The aim is wrong An important component of teaching English language not suitable for development children aged 6-12 years. Four Local Content Curriculum (East Java, Central Java, West Java,
Teacher charged with school principals to teach English while she was not have a background in English education. This happens because the school forced to teach English to their students because the demand communities or orders from superiors. Although the school was concerned not / has not been able to implement because there are no adequate and teachers activities have not prepared well-planned curriculum.
The fact that there are policies enforced at the time the policy makers less impressed or did not do a careful needs analysis before. Do workers in the field is ready? Does the curriculum / syllabus already exists? Which although clearly mentioned that English in elementary school, language subjects English is not compulsory and can be taught the lesson when indeed required and available teaching staff, many schools are forced to implement this program. Community demand, namely the parents who ask so that children also learn English like those in other schools actually not a good reason. In addition, there is "command" or a decision from the Office Local education, which requires schools to provide language lessons Learning English as a mandatory local content.
In fact developing a new program (in this program English language teaching) is not easy. Actually, it is important to underlie Teaching English in Primary Schools 4 program with a strong rationale why need a program included in school curricula. The rationale should be developed: whether indeed to meet the needs, or as a priority for a particular field in order parallel with other countries.
According Curtain & Pesola (1994) School Board and Parents Association requires strong reasons and evidence before making a decision or policy about the timing, funding and types of new programs. English language programs are necessary
explores the benefits of language learning, language choices which should be taught, and general type of learning that will be used, and other forth. The rationale is convincing and steady will be able to help existence of foreign language lessons in primary school.
Rationale for decision makers ten years ago did not one, namely the need for English language skills to participate in this era of communication and globalization, as well as for knowledge transfer, either in the language English spoken (lectures, discussions, presentations) or written (reading references, writing reports, etc.). However, I think a lot of things that are not or less attention by policy makers. The forgotten rationale among others, are as follows.
1) During this program began in junior high school English, it means that all graduates SMU / SMK / MA has been studying English for six years. Reality showed that after six years studying English, yet graduated English language skills to be able to utilize their time learned in college. Maybe if started early, from fourth grade SD, then the term of foreign language learning has become longer. Mean theoretically, learning acquisition is expected to be better and could utilize his skills to read reference books in colleges of High. Teaching English in Primary Schools 5
2) Children age 10 years (4th grade) is in the process of change that had been "Egocentric" to a reciprocal relationship or "reciprocity", so that when foreign language instruction begins early so this will trigger cognitive skills.
3) Some important things to consider: (1) Is it skilled teachers prepared to teach children with English simple and true? Learning a new language is much less a foreign language experience "traumatic." To avoid fear, shame and etc., needs to consider how to help them feel happy and calm. In fact now many teachers who are not English teachers asked to teach without the knowledge of how to use the mother tongue first, gradually getting them accustomed to use language UK (Reilly & Ward, 1997); (2) what teaching materials or which will given to students of different school location, social, economic, and culture / habit?; (3) How can teachers do assessments qualifying students to learn properly?
There are still many things that need to be considered before a policy new force. There is even a dispute is also about the position of language English, for English as a foreign language as lesson or later as "medium" in bilingual education (Chamot, 1987). In
B. Organization Theory runway EYL
In educational psychology known as the theory of development. Model learning are well known is the frequent development approach linked with Jean Piaget (1896-1980). In Piaget's model (in Orlich et.al., 1998) recognizes four stages in the development of sensor motor stage, (born until age 2 years); preoperational stage (2-8 years); concrete operational stage (8 - 11 years); and formal stage (11-15 years old). So, when elementary school children learn language started classes three or four they are in the stage of concrete operational stage and by therefore they require a lot of illustrations, models, drawings, and activities another.
Apparently less Piaget believed that the use of direct instruction actually just as important in the development of natural sciences, logic, and mathematics (Wood, 2001). Keep in mind too many verbal learning or use of demonstrations in teaching, especially for young learners ages can hinder the development of knowledge.
Currently many studies that prove and quite convincing that actual benefits of verbal learning, social interaction, and culture can enhance optimal learning. This is clear in the theory of Zone of proximal Development (ZPD) which was developed by Vygotsky (1978, 1986). Is it ZPD?
"ZPD is the distance Between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers "
When a child can not understand something, then according to Piaget's child not ready mentally. For Vygotsky, learning outside the development area knowledge. In this case study has a social value. For learning English social interaction can be realized in the form of tasks in pairs or group.
Foreign language learning for children in
Assumptions about the age and language learning, among others, children learn language better than an adult learner, learning foreign languages in schools should be started as early as possible, more easily attract the attention and interests of children than in adults, children learn a language is basically the same with adults, as revealed Ur (1996:296). These assumptions have not been confirmed by although studies of learners' experiences children seem better, and found no evidence that older age is more effective child he learned to speak (Singleton, 1989; Ellis, 1994; Ur, 1996). Furthermore,
In essence by Curtain and Pesola (1994), the children will learn foreign languages best when learning occurs in the context of communicative and meaningful to them. For children this context includes the social, cultural, games, songs, fairy tales, and the experiences of arts, crafts, and sports.
Two important theories about the development of this psychology, namely the theory of Piaget and Vygotsky, can provide important information on how we think of children as students / learners' language, especially a foreign language.
According to Piaget, children are active learners and thinkers. They always interact continuously with the world's environment and solve the problems they face in that environment, so that the process learning occurs actively. It is produced by the child itself, rather than results imitating others and gained since birth. Donaldson (1978) emphasized the implications Piaget opinion that children are always trying to actively seek an understanding of world, asking questions and want to know. Also, since small children always have an intention and purpose: he wants to ask or do something. Although children as active learners, they have limited experience. This can be understand how they respond to tasks and activities in the classroom language. By therefore, must consider how teachers could present the objects, situations, and Teaching English in Primary Schools 8 interesting activities for elementary school children so they can learn by good.
Opinion of Vygotsky (1962) differs from Piaget about language and relax on Another child in the world. He believes that children are part of the social, although he does not ignore the cognitive development of individuals. According to her center development and learning occurs in social contexts, in a world filled with others, relating to the child since birth. Those people holding important role to help children learn (playing, reading stories, talking, show objects, ideas). Here the adult world is a mediator for children. Ability to learn through the medium of instruction and is a characteristic human intelligence. With the help of an adult / child's teachers can do and understand more than they do themselves. This means also is a time-saver.
Learning to do things and learn to think both are helped by interaction with adults. Many of the ideas that Vygotsky used in formulating the framework of foreign language teaching for children. In addition to their activities directed at the children's interests, level development, and background experiences. Activities should be planned for different learning styles and to engage in activities that provide opportunities to move physically.
Actually the purpose of teaching English in
The objective of English teaching competence include all languages, namely: listening (listening), speaking (speaking), reading (
The fact is there is no or very little opportunity for students to apply what they learned in communicative situations outside of school. In general English classes in
C. Reality on the Ground
Since issued policies concerning the teaching of English in primary schools, has been much research done by students for the essay or thesis as well as by lecturers who have the attention of English language teaching for children or EYL. This is very important since the existence of research, data field in the form of reality as a result of enactment of policies can be expressed and acted upon relevant. Because of limited time, so I choose the fact that I consider relevant to the title of this speech.
Some findings of the research I've done the last four years between stated as follows. In the year 2000 with 3404 respondents in the ten-province students (East Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, West Sumatra and
High NEM class 53% said having difficulty, whereas NEM class more low (73.8%) which states that experienced difficulties. Too bad taste enjoy learning English in elementary school when the school was declining, to 63% and more than half (62.9%) stated that difficulties in learning English. Important information obtained in the study year 2001, ie there is enough lots of books / teaching materials on the market in East Java, that there are 37 kinds, and that Teaching English in Primary Schools 10 used in
Teaching materials or materials is an important source for teachers in helping students to learn English. Teaching materials for children in elementary school can be textbooks, student activity sheet (BLM), story books, recordings and dialogue, brochures, drawings, posters or other tangible objects. In this regard it is important
not the material itself but how the material is used to help students language learning (Moon, 2000).
D. Teacher Qualifications EYL
Teachers are implementing the components that should be able to translate curriculum, such as the objectives, methodology, materials, and evaluation into practical activities in English language classes. Therefore, elementary teachers who teach English or teacher English language teaching in primary schools should have the ability and skills qualified English-speaking and mastering the techniques of teaching English suitable for children. This is emphasized by Fillmore (1991) that the
research results found that children who succeed in gaining English are those who frequently interact with people master English well.
In other words, teachers must master the English language and language learning to be able to evaluate the accuracy of various methods, materials, and approaches for can help students to succeed. Some findings are quite serious about elementary school teachers involved in socialization results of the development of English language teaching model for elementary schools, among others, as follows.
Teaching English in Primary Schools 11 Educational background of teachers in the City and
Educational background of primary school teachers who took part in ten socialization training areas in Java and
Several important findings that can be recorded during the research and activities socialization among others, are as follows.
Pronunciation: Many words are not true and it could even mean another. Many teachers are not able to distinguish between the sound of | d | and | t |, [fu: d]: food pronounced [Fut]: foot. With the sound of the letter c | k | electric with the sound of | s | on electricity. Which worse is when a teacher is to teach EYL in the classroom, as model, gives an example and imitated their students:
- It is a cucumber, because c rung in the Indonesian language and it cometh English: It is a [cucumb? r].
- What happens when the kids come home and see his mother slicing cucumber, and then he said: It is a [cucumb? r] and you need a [Knæf].
Teaching English in Primary Schools 12 - It should Cucumber [kyuk? MBC] and knife [n? If] pronounced [knæf] by a teacher who is introducing kitchen tools in a classroom English in a city district.
Structure of language: Many teachers are very poor command of the language English, including a minimum of grammar must be mastered by a teacher who teaching (even giving basic!) English in primary schools. For example:
- Forms of singular and plural noun: many books, books should be. The student go, it should goes. She cooking, etc..
- Many trainees who can not distinguish the use
much vs. many
She vs. he
come vs. go
and so forth.
Technical Skills: It appears that many teachers who do not know:
- How to hold the flash cards to the right so that all students can see clearly;
- How to teach singing, so in a short time (less than 10 minutes) the student was able to sing a song whose words are relationship with their learning materials;
- How to present a story or an interesting tale with use Puppets to students;
- How to give an example or a model for speech and conduct action verbs.
The selection and development of materials: Most of the teachers use the materials teaching by simply following the sequence in the book. They often say running out of material before the school year ended. That means teachers are less skilled at selecting, adapting, and developing materials tailored to needs of their students. Necessary to develop teaching materials, plus if less, be replaced if inappropriate, if not completely revised and updated when it is not in the field.
Instructional materials and activities in the classroom should be connected with the life and actual experiences of children.
Complaints teachers always sounded: (1) less the allocation of time to English lesson (2 hours of lessons per week) Actually two hours a week for elementary students long enough the teacher can plan activities to split his time in appropriate; (2) the number of pupils in one class is too large. Number of students many in one class in the class was the fact most schools in
In the normal course of learning there is an evaluation or assessment by the teacher to know the acquisition of student learning. In this case the information obtained from teacher and the following observations: the majority of teachers (30.4%) conducted six different ways, namely daily training, classroom tasks, chores, school repetition, generally shared and replicated observation. Others (26.8%)
evaluated using five methods, namely daily training, classroom tasks, chores, school repetition, and replication was generally shared. There is something dubious, whether teacher qualifications "less" can be properly evaluated.
From the research findings for three years and also the observation of training
short, EYL teachers in 10 regions in Java and
If we look at what happened in the
To become primary school teachers are very strict selection. From high school graduates must national exam, if passed will be tested 10% best new essays written form then trained for four years with a degree B.A.
countries, the number of ethnic-groups in the country with different languages is also a factors that can not be ignored.
E. Learning Tool
From the results of this research is that there is no English language syllabus appropriate for elementary students, many books have been prepared oriented structure, themes or activities and is not accompanied by guidance teachers. Therefore, as the end result of research I together with a team of researchers has developed all the necessary teachers. Tools learning that have been generated by the research team include: 6-volume textbook language English for primary schools, namely the book "Learning by Doing" which has been equipped with the syllabus and a list of English language competence of students that must be mastered for each grade, and Teaching English in Primary Schools 15 teacher guide. Additionally, to expedite the learning process generated also the media in the form of flashcards, four sets of Puppets to teach the story / fairy tale, a cassette a collection of English songs in the sixth volume textbook, and two examples of CD teaching model with a simple lesson plan.
Learning Syllabus for English as subjects of local content as well developed for grade one to grade six. In this syllabus included basic competencies or skills of speaking of what will be achieved and the list vocabulary for each grade level or who have mastered a minimum of students. Teachers can add if indeed their students need.
Textbook entitled Learning by Doing vols 1-6 printed by PT Grafindo Media Pratama in the form that was quite interesting at the request of researchers who also author, among other quality papers, drawings and printed in color. The book contains wide range of activities based on the theories, concepts, and research experience appropriate for elementary school children. Besides that type of material is also quite a lot, among other discourse short, dialogue, storytelling, singing, games, etc..
Teachers Guide to the handle of a teacher is required for guidance implement textbook. In it contained a list of competencies language skills of students planned to be governed.
Media, consisting of 100 flash cards to form pictures of animals, objects, fruits, household appliances, clothes, etc.. Currently agreed flash cards will be printed in color and developed into 200 pieces, including flash cards with smaller sizes for children who are studying in pairs and group work.
In addition to flash cards, also made four sets of Puppets which the story content in the textbook. By reading the story (story-reading) or just be told (story-telling) the teacher can clarify the content of the story by using the Puppets. Students can hold Puppets and act together with other students (peers). This Puppets made of materials strong enough and made the color so that more interesting.
Many teachers who do not know how to sing songs in English in the book. They need a tape recording songs in the textbook.
Therefore, made recordings of the songs so that teachers can sing and teachers can prepare earlier.
In addition to song tapes, also made a CD of teaching model. Teachers can see the CD teaching model, then develop their own activities as required. Lesson simple plan as a reference for every step of the CD that accompanies the activities there.
F. Teacher Training
Rice has become porridge, the policy was implemented and a lot of things suite apprehensive. Now how can we make things that are already his becomes even better. Like the fact that I mentioned earlier, there must be pleasure to improve English language programs in elementary school. One thing that needs to be handled is to assist teachers to improve the abilities and English skills language and teaching methodology for young children (6-12 years).
Given the "explosion" of English courses for children, not just SD even in kindergartens and play groups to learn English, there are a lot of demand for English teacher. So training for EYL teachers need to be well planned. Actually, Wallace (1995) offers three forms of teacher training enough known persons, namely: (1) training by the experts and teachers to see, mimicking the techniques demonstrated by following the coaches instructions, (2) applied science model, trainers receive science / theory and applied, then corrected periodically based on the findings of existing knowledge, (3) model of reflection, participants raining has been familiar with the concepts, terminology, research findings, theories and skills widely known. An English teacher for children should be peak English well, can manage the activities individually, in pairs or goups. After the activities can be practiced reflection to see
What has been done can be run well or did not like that
In our educational conditions like now, I together with the research team find a way short training (7-8 hours) for elementary school teachers who teach English but does not have an educational background in English. Training beginning with the activities of providing information to make them understand the basic EYL in the elementary school of thought with the introduction of policies related to open insights them.
Furthermore, the coach began to demonstrate some practical techniques to teach language English for children, such as the introduction of new vocabulary; telling story for listening skills which are directly followed with the skills to "talk" or "Writing". The words chosen are expected meaningful for students. Repetition of vocabulary words to understand the text or content of the story conveyed using media, Puppets is by hearing aids.
In training activities, teachers directly involved and directly invited to sing and asked what kind of responsibility they have to do later on their students. After finishing some teaching techniques, we trained participants to make a simple media, such as flash cards or flip cards. The results are used for participants tested in advance
others to know how to use the media made their own.
The second training is sort of short courses about the EYL with material been prepared which includes the characteristics of children, policies and some results research. Also featured are also learning by doing "approach with the given samples using the media. Integrated language skills, reading stories, singing and playing the game. Create a simple media and the way use also was trained. Face to face for the discussion of materials, followed by practical skills and modeling. Participants earn a certificate after attending with full training. Participants who have joined this activity is a lecturer and EYL students.
Third, is the pre-service training offered in the form of course options that weighs four credits. In this lecture the student already knows subject of which one is the theory and which for training practical. For practical tasks, students conduct micro-teaching activities by presenting some elementary students. The subject together with training second. The difference is the final lecture for prospective teachers must read a lot and develop a lesson plan for the use of micro-teaching with children's elementary school class Four or five.
The fourth training is training which is emphasized in the reconstruction of the eye lectures: (1), participants were representatives from the Department of English at college gathered to practice at the national level, (2) then they will return to the place each and the upgrading of teachers; (3) Our final train teachers in order experience for yourself and see whether the participants whose performance can be the model to help other teachers.
Thus models for teacher training that can be done immediately through training activities by the Education Department with a team in the EYL or One-day form of workshop activity with shared funding. Training activities able through existing institutions to the community through service activities. Conclusions and Suggestions.
G. Conclusion And Suggestion
Based on the description in advance can I get some conclusions as follows.
First, English teaching materials for elementary school quite a lot in the market, but not many are qualified to serve as the student handbook at class. Therefore, teachers must be able and skilled at choosing books with consider fitness for purpose, content, language and level of difficulty students.
Second, teaching English in primary schools has been carried out with various kinds of obstacles and problems, meaning children in Indonesia is currently studying English is much longer beginning and they learn English. Therefore, "Feel good" students learning English need to be maintained.
Third, most teachers who teach English in elementary school does not yet have English-speaking abilities and skills are sufficient to act as foreign language teachers in primary schools because the majority (+ 80%) they do not have an educational background in English.
Fourth, it is not yet available in English syllabus for primary schools equipped with teaching materials, guidance teachers, and media. Results Research Team developed RUT VIII in 2001 until 2003, can be used as capital to adjusted with local requirements.
Fifth, the course has not been evenly Home for Young Learners in programs English Education in Higher Education. For the minimum standards necessary There are modules to reconstruct the national meeting.
Based on the reviews in advance there are a few suggestions that I want to ask as follows.
First, there needs to be the minimum criteria that can be followed by book writer English lessons, for example, need to follow the guidelines of writing
Second, the "feel good" students' English learning needs to be preserved with create an interesting learning situations, using a variety of practical techniques such as singing, storytelling, games using visual aids / media in accordance with educational materials (flash cards, Puppets, and cassette).
Thirdly, cooperation between the Ontario Ministry of Education, Universities (LPM, Research Center, Department of English Language Education) and other relevant institutions to conduct training activities that aim to improve the abilities and skills English primary school teachers especially those who have no background English language education. They should be trained especially mastery of language, eg. the correct words, grammar, and word choice.
Fourth, English language learning device that consists of syllabi, guidance of teachers, the book Learning by Doing, the media I have developed joint team need disseminated more widely to model or example of the expected can be used by teachers in the field.
Fifth, it should be immediately held a national workshop to reconstruct eye EYL lecture will be developed with minimal standards that need to be fulfilled in these subjects (subject, references, activities, etc.).
· Chodidjah, Itje. 2000. Pedoman Mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Dasar di Indonesia.
· Ramadhy A. Sufyan. 2002. Pembelajaran Berbasis Cara Kerja Otak.
· Suyanto, Kasihani K. E.; Rachmayanti, Sri; Rahayu, Lestari. 2003. Sosialisasi Model Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Muatan Lokal di Sekolah Dasar. RUT. VIII.3. MENRISTEK RI dan Lemlit U
· Suyanto, Kasihani K.E. 2000. Senang Belajar Bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Dasar: Penelitian 10 Provinsi di Indonesia.
TEACHING ENGLISH IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
POLICY, IMPLEMENTATION, AND THE FACT
Proposed To Meet One Of The Task Group On The Course English Language Training Management
1. Adi Rusnadi
2. Ahmad Suro
3. Firmansyah Rowardi
TBI - C / IV (Four)
STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC BANTEN
SULTAN MAULANA HASANUDDIN
EDUCATION AND ETIQUETTE FACULTY
2009 - 2010